3. Palladio, The four books of architecture, I (1570)(translation of 1735)

Chapter XV, Of the Dorick Order

The Dorick order had both its name and origin from the Dorians a Greek nation in Asia. If the columns of this order are made alone, and without pilasters, they ought to be seven diameters and a half or eight in height: the inercolumniations are something less than three diameters of the column; which manner of placing columns, to form colonades, is called by Vitruvius diastilo's.

But when they are supported with pilasters, their height ought to be seventeen modules and onethird, including the base and capital. And it is to be observed, as I have said before in chapter XIII, that the module in this order, only, is but half the diameter of the column divided into thirty minutes, and in all the other orders is the whole diameter divided into sixty minutes.

No pedestal is to be seen in ancient buildings to this order, although there are in the modern.


The capital ought to be in height half the diameter of the column, and is to be divided into three parts. The upper part is given to the abaco and cimacio. The cimacio is two of the five parts thereof, which must be divided into three parts; with the one the listello is made, and with the other two the gola. The second principal part is divided into three equal parts; one to be given to the annelli or annulets, or gradetti, which three are equal; the other two remain for the ovolo, which projects two thirds of its height. The third part is for the collarino.

The whole projecture is the fifth part of the diameter of the column. The astragal or tondino is as high as all the three annelli, and projects equal to the lower part of the shaft of the column. The cimbia is half the height of the astragal or tondino, and its projecture is directly plumb with the centre of the said astragal.

The architrave is placed upon the capital, the height of which must be half the diameter of the column, that is, a module. It is divided into seven parts. With one the tenia or benda is made, whose projecture must be equal to its height; thenthe whole is again divided into six parts, one is given to the goccie, which ought to be six, and so the listello uner the tenia, which is a third part of the said goccie.

From the tenia downwards the remainder is again divided into seven parts; three are to be given to the first fascia, and four to the second. The frize is a module and half in height. The breadth of a triglyph is one module, and its capital the sixth part of a module. The triglyph is to be divided into six parts; two of which are for the two channels in the middle, one for the two half channels at the ends, and the other three foor the spaces between the said channels.

The metopa or space between triglyph and triglyph, ought to be as broad as it is high. The cornice must be a module and one sixth in height, and divided into five parts and a half, two of which are given to the cavetto and ovolo. The cavetto is less than the ovolo by the width of the listello. The remaining three parts and a half are to be given to the corona or cornice, hich is vulgarly called gocciolatoio, and to the gola or cima recta and reversa.

The corona ought to project four parts in six of the module, and have on its soffit, that looks downwards, and projects forwards, six drops or guttae, in length and three in breadth, with their listelli over the triglyphs, and some roses over the metopae. The guttae are round, shaped like bells, and answer to those under the tenia.

The gola must be an eighth part thicker than the corona, and divided into eight parts; two are to be given to the orlo, and six remain for the gola, whose projecture is seven parts and a half.

Therefore the height of the architrave, frize and cornice is a fourth part of the altitude of the column.

These are the dimensions of the cornice, according to Vitruvius; from which I have deviated in altering some of the members, and making them somewhat larger.

A Gola recta
B Gola reversa
C Gocciolatoio or Corona
D Ovolo
E Cavetto
F Capital of the triglyph
G Triglyph
H Metopa
I Tenia
K Goccie
L First fascia
M Second fascia
Y soffit of the gocciolatoio

Parts of the capital

N Cimacio
O Abaco
P Ovolo
Q Gradetti or annulets
R Collarino
S Astragal
T Cimbia
V shaft of the column
X Plan of the capital, and the module divided into thirty minutes