2. Palladio, The four books of architecture, I (1570)(translation of 1735)

Chapter XIV, Of the Tuscan Order

The Tuscan order, according to Vitruvius, and as in effect it appears, is the moft simple and plain of all the orders in architecture; because it retains something of the former antiquity, and is deprived of those ornaments that make the others so sightly and beautiful.
It was first invented in Tuscany, a most noble part of Italy, from whence its name is derived.
The columns, with their base and capital, ought to be seven modules in height, and to be diminished at top a fourth part of their thickness.
If simple colonades are made of this order, the spaces or intercolumniations may be very wide because the architraves are made of wood, which will therefore be very commodious for villa's, because it admits of passage for carts, and other country implements, besides being of little expence.
But if gates or loggia's with arches are to be made, then the measures marked in the design are to be used in which the stones are bonded, as I think they ought to be. I have also been mindful of this in the designs of the other four orders. And this way of disposing and bonding the stones I have taken from many ancient arches; as will be seen in my Book of arches; and in this I have ufed great diligence.

  1. The architrave of wood.
  2. The joysts wich form tbe corona or drip.

The pedestals placed under the columns of this order are to be made plain, and one module in height. The height of the base is half the diameter of the column; and this height is to be divided into two equal parts, one to be given to the plinth, which is made with the compass, and the other divided into four parts, one to be given to the fillet, also called the imbia which may sometimes be made less, and in this order only is part of the base, which in all the other is part of the column; the other three parts are for the torus or bastone. The projectíon of this base is the fixth part of the diameter of the column.
The height of the capital is half the diameter of the lower part of the column, and is divlded into three equal parts; one is given to the abaco, (which from its form is usually called the dado) the other to the ovolo, and the third is divided into seven parts, of one the fillet under the ovolo is made, and the remaining six are for the collarino. The height of the astragal is double that of the listello or fillet under the listello and its center is made upon the line that falls perpendicularly upon the said listello, upon which alfo falls the projection of the cimbia, which is as thick as the listello.
The projection of this capital answers to the shaft of the column below, the architrave is made of wood, equal in height as in width, and not to exceed in width the shaft of the column at top. The projecture of the joysts that form the gronda or drip, is a fourth part of the length of the column.
These are the measures of the Tuscan order, according to Vitruvius.

  1. Abaco.
  2. Ovolo
  3. Collarino
  4. Astragal
  5. The shaft of the column at top
  1. The shaft of the column below.
  2. Cimbia or Cincture
  3. Toro or Bastone.
  4. Orlo
  5. Pedestal

The profiles placed near the plan of the base and capital are the imposts of the arches.
But when the architraves are to be made of stone, then what has been said before, with respect to the intercolumniations, must be observed.
There are ancient buildings still to be seen, which, as they partly retain the same measures, may be said to have been formed of this order, like the arena of Verona, the arena and theatre of Pola, and many others; from which I have taken the profiles of the base, capital, architrave, frize, and cornices, placed upon the last plate of this chapter, as also those of the imposts of arches, and shall insert the designs of all these several edifices in my books of antiquity.

  1. Gola diritta.
  2. Corona
  3. Gocciolatrio e Gola diritta
  4. Cavetto
  5. Fregio, or frize
  6. Architrave
  7. Cimacio
  8. Abaco
  1. Gola diritta
  1. Collarino
  2. Astragal
  3. Shaft of the column under the capítal
  4. Shaft of the column at bottom
  5. Cimbia of the column
  6. Bastone and Gola or torus
  7. Orlo

Directly opposite to the architrave marked F, there is the profile of an architrave formed with more delicacy.




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